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This page should be read in conjunction with the page on facet joint injections and medial branch blocks.


The facet joints are small joints in the back that allow our back to flex and move. It is normal for these joints to age like the rest of our bodies, and what is often termed 'facet joint arthritis' or 'facet joint degeneration' is a normal consequence of ageing. Nevertheless, the facets joints can cause back pain and even pain radiating down the back of the legs or into the groin. Patients who have had an excellent but temporary response to medial branch blocks may be a candidate for facet joint denervation. Facet joint denervation is a treatment where the nerves that supply the facet joints are destroyed through microwave-type energy that is applied to them through needles. Usually some steroid is injected to reduced any discomfort in the days following the treatment

Targets for facet joint denervation


If you have had medial branch blocks, and have seen an 80% improvement in your pain, even if this improvement was short-lived, then 8 out of 10 times you will benefit from facet joint denervation. The treatment replicates the benefit that you received from the medial branch blocks, but in a form that can give up to two years pain relief. If it is effective it can be repeated. 


We have performed this treatment many times with no significant complications. However, as with any medical treatment, there are some risks that we will discuss with you. Specifically, we will mention:

  • a risk that the treatment will not work for you

  • bruising

  • infection

  • nerve damage (on average this happens about 1 in every 10,000 injections. It is rarely permanent).

  • a feeling like sunburn or a feeling of numbness in the skin of the back. The numbness may be permanent.

  • if you are a female patient, you may experience abnormal vaginal bleeding following a steroid injection anywhere in the body. This is not dangerous, but you need to be aware of it. 

  • very rarely, steroids used by any route (eg by mouth, inhaled, injected) can cause visual problems. If you have any visual disturbance following a steroid injection, you will need to be seen by an eye specialist to rule out any serious cause.


Our usual practice is to see you for a consultation before your injection so that we can go through the treatment options with you, and detail any risks and benefits. An exception to this might be if you have had a similar treatment before and are coming for a repeat injection. It is extremely important that if you take any drugs that affect your blood clotting (eg warfarin, heparin, dalteparin, apixiban, clopidogrel etc) that you tell your Bath Pain Management consultant or our administrative team prior to the day of treatment, as there are some injections that we cannot perform whilst you are on those drugs. We will then be able to give you tailored advice regarding arrangements for your medication around the time of your treatment.

We will endeavour to send you detailed information on any fees that apply before you come for your treatment. Again, please contact our administrative team if you have not received this information before the day of treatment. 


Facet joint denervation is usually carried out under light sedation. We therefore ask that you avoid eating on the morning of your treatment, although you can drink water up to two hours before your treatment. 

On the day of your treatment you will be asked to attend the hospital a little while before the time of your injections. This is so that the nurses can get you ready for your treatment, and your Bath Pain Management consultant can see you to go through the treatment again and give you the opportunity to ask any questions that you might have. Having gone through risks and benefits of the treatment again, you will be asked to sign a consent form for the treatment, giving us permission to go ahead. However even after you have signed this you are perfectly entitled to change your mind at any time. 


You will be asked to walk to the room where we will treat you. Sometimes you may go to the room on a trolley or on a bed. There will be a number of staff present in the treatment room including your consultant, one or two nurses and a radiographer. The radiographer's job is to operate the xray machine if one is required for your particular treatment. You will be asked some questions as part of a safety check. When this check is completed you will be helped into the correct position for the treatment. The consultant may perform some xrays at this point, then the treatment will be carried out. Prior to the treatment some local anaesthetic will be injected. This will sting for a few moments, but following this the treatments are often quite painless. Occasionally, particularly if you have had pain for a long time, the treatments can be uncomfortable, but your consultant will endeavour to reduce any discomfort to a minimum. 


After the treatment, you will go back to a recovery area for 30 minutes or so. Once you have recovered from any sedation, you will be moved back to your room on a trolley. Once you have recovered from the treatment you will be able to go home. You will be unable to drive for 24 hours after any sedative, and you will therefore need to make arrangements to be collected and accompanied home. Most of our patients are able to leave the hospital within two hours of this treatment. 


If you are a private patient you will receive a telephone call to check on your progress within three to four weeks. Please note that we are unable to leave answerphone messages for confidentiality reasons, unless your answerphone clearly states that you are the owner and we have your permission. You may be invited back for, or request a follow-up consultation to go through other non-injection treatment options. 

We see a small number of patients through the NHS Choose and Book system. Generally follow-up would be provided by your GP, but we are obviously always happy to deal with any concerns you may have after your treatment. 

*A note on the use of steroids in spinal injections

Although steroids have been used for many years safely in spinal injections, they are not licensed for this purpose. This means that the companies producing the steroid have not paid for a license allowing them to market the steroids for spinal injections. It does not mean that doctors cannot use them for this purpose, when the symptoms suggest they would be useful. 

Your Bath Pain Management consultant will be happy to explain this in more detail to you if you wish. 

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